Week 8: The Peace Movement (2) the anti-nuclear movement; conclusion.
1. The development and first use of atomic (fission) weapons – 1945: Hiroshima (140,000 died), Nagasaki (74,000 died). The hydrogen bomb (fusion)
2. The first protests, marches versus direct action:
CND (Aldermaston 1958), Direct Action Committee, Committee of 100. Marches, civil disobedience and direct action (e.g. Spies for Peace (secret bunkers).
3. Differences over strategy: unilateralism – vs multilateralism (European Campaign: END), changing the social order, opposing testing, public opinion and parliament, civil disobedience and the state, peace research.
4. First Treaties and other achievements:
Partial Test-Ban Treaty 1963
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1968
5. Second phase of the anti-nuclear movement (1980s):
INF Treaty 1987 – intermediate-range forces
Cruise and Pershing missiles – removed from Europe
Greenham Common – base now closed
1982 Labour Party votes for unilateral nuclear disarmament – later dropped
1985 Rainbow Warrior (Greenpeace) sunk
6. Stockpile of weapons – in 2018, 14,465 nuclear warheads
7. Deterrence and war
8. Armed to the teeth?
9. The arms trade (another cause of war, along with nationalism, territorial ambition, resources control, balance of power...). Corruption
10. Liberal Interventionism?
11. Recent moves for more treaties:
Arms Trade Treaty 2014
Treaty to Ban Nuclear Weapons (2017): 122 nations have signed
12 Conclusion: overall achievements of the peace movement:
- public opinion and government accountability
- treaties and international law (international courts – see (*) below)
- a more peaceful world?
(*). Footnote on International Courts:
International Court of Justice: part of the UN; resolves inter-state disputes
International Criminal Court: intergovernmental; pursues individuals