People Power Week 7:
The peace movement, part 1. Opposition to war:
1. Introduction: the different “strands” in the movement:
- pacifism – against war as a means of solving disputes (overlaps with non-violence)
- opposition to nuclear weapons – these weapons are different and too destructive
- non-violence – an alternative to violence, a life-style and activist. Example: ahimsa.
2.1 Examples of religious opposition to war:
Christianity (but ‘just war’ theory), Buddhism and ‘compassion’, Hindu/Jain &
Gandhi, Jehovah’s Witnesses
2.2 Political, philosophical or ideologically-based opposition to war:
Rousseau, Kant, Marxism, Anarchism, liberal capitalism/free trade.
The consequent differing analyses of the causes of war:
imperialist rivalries, capitalism, military-industrial complex, arms manufacture,
arms race, nationalism…
3.1 before the 20th century – after Napoleonic wars (early 19th C.).
International League of Peace and Freedom 1867,
International Peace Bureau à
But US in Philippines etc.
3.2 the 20th century:
World War I (1914 – 18): intellectuals, poets, PPU, WILPF 1915 - women and
war., socialist opposition, mutinies, Conscientious Objectors, shell-shock.
Spanish Civil War (1936 – 39). ‘A bayonet is a weapon with a worker on each
World War II (1939 – 45): fascism vs. communism. Conscientious objectors (in
US: four times
as many as in WWI. In
applied (5,000 men, 500 women sent to prison).
‘In war one becomes what the enemy is accused of being.’ Extermination camps.
Other Conflicts Since World War II that affected the peace movement.
note on pressure-groups: most arose against nuclear
weapons (see next week) –