Protecting the Planet (a WEA course)


8. Species Decline



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Protecting the Planet 1: Introduction          Protecting the Planet 2: key industries        Protecting the Planet 3: cases and some solutions         Protecting the Planet 4: strategies

Protecting the Planet 6: global warming     Protecting the Planet 7: effects of global warming            Protecting the Planet 9: energy policies Protecting the Planet 10: the movement



1. The problem (reports and surveys):

(i) UN Convention on Biodiversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty. The Convention has three main goals including: the conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity); the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.

The Convention was opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993.

2018 COP 14

The fourteenth ordinary meeting of the parties to the convention took place on 17–29 November 2018, in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.[30] The 2018 UN Biodiversity Conference closed on 29 November 2018 with broad international agreement on reversing the global destruction of nature and biodiversity loss threatening all forms of life on Earth. Parties adopted the Voluntary Guidelines for the design and effective implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.[31] Governments also agreed to accelerate action to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, agreed in 2010, from now until 2020. Work to achieve these targets will take place at the global, regional, national and subnational levels.


Intensive monoculture and human overpopulation are the two most pertinent biodiversity issues to address.


(ii) 8th Dec 2015 (Emma Howard reported) Nature Communications article on Declining Resilience of Ecosystem Functions under Biodiversity Loss:


Biggest analysis of British wildlife ever conducted, with researchers from Reading University, and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (led by Dr Tom Oliver).

The study builds on the 2013 State of nature report.

It looked at records covering 4,424 species, over the period 1970-2009, and was based on observations by thousands of trained volunteers.


In decline:

28% of pollinators (bees, moths, hoverflies) à rise in price of food, some crops unavailable

16% of natural pest controllers (ants, ground beetles, hedgehogs)

8% of those supporting decomposition

10% of those helping carbon sequestration

14% of those with cultural value (lesser horseshoe bat, dark green fritillary butterfly, pasque flower) – note this is an important area of loss to human wellbeing.


(iii) The 2016 State of Nature report found: More than one in 10 of the UK’s wildlife species are threatened with extinction. (Damian Carrington 14/9/16). The numbers of the most endangered creatures have fallen by two-thirds since 1970. This covers birds, animals, fish and plants.

Overall 53% - 56% of species declined between 1970 and 2011, but some species increased - this ‘does not look like a healthy, natural situation’ (Mark Eaton, conservation scientist at RSPB) – some species going up very quickly, and others going down equally quickly, so we could end up with ‘50% left’.


(iv) (1-7 Sep 2017, New Statesman, Simon Barnes): According to the Living Planet index, compiled by the WWF and the Zoological Society the world’s wild animals will decline in number by two-thirds by 2020. Of the 85,000 species listed by the IUCN, more than 24,000 are in danger, including lions, rhinos and giraffes. Numbers have fallen by 40% since 1985. Among primates, three-quarters have falling numbers, with 60% threatened with extinction, including gorillas and chimpanzees.

In the UK we have lost 8% of our butterfly species, 3% of our beetles, and the hen harrier is close to extinction. Between 1,200 and 3,180 species will have become nationally extinct in the past couple of centuries.

(v) More than 70 environmental organisations and research institutes from across the UK have collaborated on the State of Nature 2019 reported on loss of nature since 1970. (Unlike previous efforts in 2013 and 2016, government agencies were involved). Main findings:

15 per cent of species under threat of extinction and 2 per cent of species have already gone for good.

Average abundance of wildlife has fallen by 13 per cent with the steepest losses in the last ten years.

41 per cent of UK species studied have fallen and 133 species have already been lost from our shores 

Butterflies and moths, down 17 per cent and 25 per cent respectively. Numbers of high brown fritillary and grayling butterflies, have fallen by more than three quarters.  

The average amount of mammals has fallen by 26 per cent and the wild cat and greater mouse-eared bat are almost extinct

(vi) May 2019 the United Nations report from the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES):

Almost 1 million species face extinction - the largest number in human history ever to be facing the threat of oblivion. Many species could be wiped out within decades.

There are threats to more than 40% of amphibians, to 33% of coral reefs (around half of all live coral reef cover has been lost since the 1870s), and to over a third of all marine mammals.








Loss of habitat, due to:

- pollution (this includes plastic: Since 1980 plastic pollution has increased tenfold)

- over-exploitation (including over-fishing, contributing to the fact mentioned above that there could be more plastic than fish in the ocean by 2050. Nearly 75 percent of freshwater resources are now devoted to livestock production, and in 2015, 33 percent of marine fish stocks were being harvested at unsustainable levels.)

- changes in land use (more than a third of the world’s land surface is devoted to food production, and about 25% of greenhouse gas emissions are caused by land clearing, crop production and fertilization, and essential crops are under threat because of years of unsustainable agricultural practices. 23% of land areas have reduced agricultural productivity due to land degradation).

Climate change, and habitat loss – also pesticides and other chemical pollution, in the sea/rivers: noise pollution, propeller strikes etc (yangtze dolphin, below) – i.e. living among so many people. Also: intensive farming, urbanization, climate change.

3. Significance for us:

Climate breakdown and the decimation of the natural world are connected, and human action is the cause. The essential, interconnected web of life on Earth is getting smaller and increasingly frayed,” said Professor Josef Settele (ecologist and Co-chair of the IPBES).

( We can expect opposition to changes from vested interests, but there is still time to conserve natural habitats, if we act quickly to preserve key areas. )

We are losing both biodiversity and bio-abundance.

We are now going through the sixth extinction. (Palaeontologists agree that there have been 5 major extinctions in the history of the earth (*). The most recent saw the dinosaurs killed off 65 million years ago. )

Importance of biodiversity – rich biodiversity means more stability, chances of survival better for all in the system.


Biodiversity is a crucial resource: for food, medicine, fuel, economic benefit etc and 5 ‘functions’: pollination, pest control, decomposition, carbon sequestration, cultural value.

Without the life-essential services nature provides — breathable air, drinkable water, healthy oceans, a stable climate — humans will not survive.

Nature provides economic and health benefits of about £30bn a year (government 2011 analysis). But public funding for biodiversity has fallen by 32% from 2008 to 2015.

Loss of balance (Simon Barnes):  domesticated animals are not declining – and nor are humans (themselves animals!). The balance is changing: whereas 10,000 years ago humans and their domestic animals made up 0.4% of the total, now it’s 96% and rising.

(1-7 Sep 2017, New Statesman, Simon Barnes).

John Burton of the World Land Trust says: ‘We’ll always have rats and cockroaches and their like for company. Which is not inappropriate.’ It is ironic that the species that will survive are those we have always despised. They will survive because they have adapted to live with humans... Meanwhile we are killing off numbers of species because we think of ourselves as superior.

Peter Singer, the ethical philosopher, says we suffer from ‘speciesism’ – we have evolved from only caring about our immediate family, to the tribe, the nation, and now to all humanity (perhaps!). But now we need to extend our ‘circles of concern’ to include animals.

4. Examples due to effects of global warming:

May 2015: a ‘meta-study’ of 131 studies of the impact of climate change on biodiversity loss concludes that one in six species face extinction if nothing is done about global warming and the temperature rises by 4 degrees. If the rise in global temperature is kept back to 2 degrees then one in twenty species still face extinction. Most endangered: those that depend on Arctic ice.


Antarctica: 1st Sep 2017 Jonathan Watts.

Growth rates of some fauna such as bryozoans moss and a marine worm have been increasing. The moss then pushes out other species and reduces overall biodiversity levels. The area usually has a very rich biodiversity – like coral reefs. We had been more concerned about the Arctic than the far bigger southern ice cap – but temperatures have been rising there


Changing seasons; Al Gore points out (p 152 ff), if the seasons change, then food (plants or insects) will not necessarily be available for creatures when they hatch – since hatching has been ‘timed’ for the point in the year when food is available.

Climate change means more migratory butterflies have been arriving – clouded yellow, red admiral and painted lady have all increased. (Patrick Barkham 15th Dec 2017)


Consequences for sea food: 3rd Sep 2017(Robin McKie):

There will be new fish in our waters as the temperature rises – some will be harmful to other species, others may become new items in our diet, according to a report in Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.

Slipper limpets could destroy mussel and oyster beds, but the American razor clam and the Pacific oyster could be valuable for fishermen.

Haddock is being forced north – but sole and plaice have nowhere to go. Cod may be more resilient, but it is being caught more round Iceland. Cuttlefish and sardines are rising in numbers, and red mullet and john dory will become more common.

20th Aug 2017: Sea-birds (Robin McKie)

Our populations of arctic skuas, arctic terns and kittiwakes are in free fall. Colonies are withering away, especially in northern Scotland. On St Kilda: a 99% reduction in kittiwake numbers since 1990. Marwick Head on Orkney – once a home to thousands of kittiwakes - is deserted. Fair Isle puffins are down from 20,000 to 10,000 over the past 30 years. On Orkney and Shetland guillemots have halved in number... in the past 25 years Scotland may have lost half its breeding bird population.

The UK is home to most of the world’s population of some of these birds. The government carries out a census every 15 years but has not taken any action.

The main cause is the 1C rise in sea temperature – this has led to a loss of zooplankton, and sand eels have disappeared from many parts of the Atlantic and North Sea. The birds which only eat sand eels are declining more rapidly.

30th April 2017 (Alys Fowler) RHS: Gardening in a Changing Climate:

In the south – prolonged periods without rain, in the north – wetter winters. More extremes, wetter and windier storms and more flooding and water-logging.  Hence a longer growing season for some plants, but poor for those that need a cold spell in winter. Earlier flowering will stress pollinating insects (out of sync!) – and some new pests are likely (rosemary beetles are a recent introduction).

NB: Plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere and lock carbon in the soil. Garden soils store almost 25% more carbon than arable soils. Gardens make up 25% of all urban areas and account for around 25,000 sq km of our land.


The Yangtze dolphin (or baiji) was declared ‘functionally extinct’ in 2006. It lived in the dark depths of the river Yangtse, and moved around by sonar. It was the victim of ‘chemical pollution, noise pollution, propeller strikes’ etc – i.e. living among so many people.

Note (15th June 2016, Michael Slezak): the first recorded extinction of a mammal anywhere in the world thought to be primarily due to anthropogenic climate change – the Bramble Cay melomys, a small rodent from an island (Bramble Cay) in the eastern Torres Strait, that is part of the Great Barrier Reef. The island is off the north coast of Queensland, Australia (340metres long and 150 metres wide) which sits three metres above sea level at most.

It was first recorded by Europeans in 1845 – sailors shot the ‘large rats’ with bows and arrows. In 1978 it was estimated there were a few hundred. It hasn’t been seen since 2009. The sea has risen on a number of occasions and inundated the animals’ habitats. The area of the island above sea level has been shrinking and vegetation cover has been declining. It lost 97% of its habitat in 10 years.

The island is also a breeding ground for green turtles and a number of seabirds.

One other mammal has been driven to extinction recently, but it was wiped out by cats.

15th Dec 2017. (Patrick Barkham) Butterflies

A study by Butterfly Conservation and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology – ‘The State of the UK’s Butterflies 2015’ - reports: more than three-quarters of Britain’s 59 butterfly species have declined over the past 40 years. And we have lost 8% of our butterfly species (Simon Barnes, NS 1-7 Sep 2017).

Chris Packham says: this is the final warning bell – if butterflies are going downhill like this, what’s happening to our grasshoppers, our beetles, our solitary bees?

The decline of some rarer butterflies (e.g. Duke of Burgundy and pearl-bordered fritillary) has been arrested by conservation efforts. But:

The high brown fritillary has declined 96% (in occurrence, i.e. on sites at which it is present) since 1976, the wood white is down 88% in abundance, the white admiral down 59% in abundance.

The causes for ‘habitat specialist’ butterflies are clear, but why have once more common species declined? The wall butterfly is now down in both occurrence and abundance (in lower numbers and in fewer locations) – climate change and pesticides seem to be playing a bigger part than previously thought. Packham says we need more funding to find out the causes, though he thinks it is broad-spectrum insecticides and neonicotinoids.

Some species have moved further north, and Scotland sees more common butterflies than England does. The same is true of moths. However, they do not always score highly on both occurrence and abundance.


2nd March 2017 (Patric Barkham) The hedgehog:

The hedgehog is vanishing from Britain. There were approximately 1.55 million in 1995 – since then they have declined by a third in urban areas and by 75% in the countryside. They are declining by 3% a year. Modern life seems to threaten them (dogs, cats, machines to cut grass, bonfires, slug pellets, road traffic etc).

Main cause is habitat fragmentation. Females travel an average of 1km every night in search of insects and earthworms, and males 2km. They need good patches/stretches of good land connected to each other. Hugh Warwick has written a book: Linescapes showing how roads etc cut land up. They have been around for 15m years, mostly living near hedges. The enclosures of the 18th and 19th centuries actually helped, and peak time was around the second world war. The industrialisation of agriculture changed it all.

Also a small dose of chemicals and pesticides can do serious harm, but banning slug pellets is not as important as providing the right landscape. But they are declining more in the countryside – badgers are seen as the problem. The badger population is growing – the number of active setts in England has doubled since the late 1980s. They share the same diet (earthworms, grubs, beetles) – but if that food becomes scarce, or the badger population becomes more dense, then the badgers prey on hedgehogs. But the changing environment we have created leads to this situation – we need smaller fields and thicker hedges. Between 1984 and 1990, 121,000km of British hedges were destroyed – 22% of the total.

Unusually warm spells in winter can make the hedgehog come out of hibernation when there isn’t food around. Milder winters also lead to more parasites.

Hedgehogs – decline due to our building roads, etc and clearing hedges, though badgers predating them is main cause (they would stand a better chance if we hadn’t changed their environment) Patrick Barkham 2nd March 2017 Guardian G2.

NB the hedgehog is a generalist, but it is still disappearing (it is easier to understand when a specialist has lost its food source). They may not die out completely though.

We notice hedgehogs and then do something about them – what about the creatures we are not aware of?

11th April 2017 Birds (Kate Lyons):

A report, by the British Trust for Ornithology, RSPB and the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust and others, says more than a quarter of our birds need urgent conservation efforts to ensure their survival. 15 more birds have been put on the ‘red list’ since the last report in 2009 (meaning they are in danger of extinction or experienced significant decline). The total on the red list is now 67 out of 247.

8 species are in risk of global extinction (Balearic shearwater, aquatic warbler, common pochard, long-tailed duck, velvet scooter, Slavonian grebe, puffin and turtle dove).

Causes: land use change (afforestation, drainage of fields for farmland) – also an increase of predators (crows, foxes), and global climate change that affects migration. 

The curlew has declined by 64% from 1970 to 2014 due to habitat loss. The UK supports up to 27% of the global curlew population.

Some species have increased: bittern and nightjar have moved from red to amber, and 22 species have moved from amber to green. The golden eagle has increased by 15% since 2003, and the red kite has been reintroduced, and is now on the green list. These had been threatened by people protecting grouse moors, and others taking eggs.

Insects, plants, food:

2018: Insects and invertebrates have declined most dramatically, by 59% since 1970. Thus pollination, healthy soil etc are damaged. ‘They are about the most important things out there’ says Eaton.

 ‘The new data was gathered in nature reserves across Germany but has implications for all landscapes dominated by agriculture, the researchers said.

The cause of the huge decline is as yet unclear, although the destruction of wild areas and widespread use of pesticides are the most likely factors and climate change may play a role.

“Insects make up about two-thirds of all life on Earth [but] there has been some kind of horrific decline,” said Prof Dave Goulson of Sussex University, UK, and part of the team behind the new study. “We appear to be making vast tracts of land inhospitable to most forms of life, and are currently on course for ecological Armageddon. If we lose the insects then everything is going to collapse.”

Flies, beetles and wasps are also predators and decomposers, controlling pests and cleaning up the place generally.

The research, published in the journal Plos One, is based on the work of dozens of amateur entomologists across Germany who began using strictly standardised ways of collecting insects in 1989. Special tents called malaise traps were used to capture more than 1,500 samples of all flying insects at 63 different nature reserves.’

If the insects leave the reserves and go on to farmland, then they won’t find anything much to eat, and they may be exposed to pesticides, says Dave Goulson.

Oct 2017 Michael McCarthy Guardian 21st Oct 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/oct/18/warning-of-ecological-armageddon-after-dramatic-plunge-in-insect-numbers  

Scientists tell of alarm at huge fall in flying insects... the biomass of flying insects in Germany has dropped by 75% since 1989. Insects are vital plant pollinators, and the food base of thousands and thousands of food chains. Britain’s farmland birds have declined by more than half because of loss of insects. The grey partridge and spotted flycatcher have declined by more than 95%, and the red-backed shrike is extinct.

We have not noticed partly because we don’t like insects and partly because we don’t (can’t perhaps) count them. In Britain alone there are about 24,500 insect species.

Two-thirds of all species on Earth are insects. They have been present on earth for about 350 million years (humans for 130,000). There are more kinds of beetle than of all plants.

Letter in Guardian, Oct 2017: Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust: insecticide use is responsible for declining numbers. Agri-environmental measures are available through the Countryside Stewardship Scheme: conservation headlands (low-input cereal headlands), wildbird seed mix. (Measured less decline (35%) in Sussex than found in Germany (87%), but high decline (72%) in insects (and 45% of invertebrates) that are chick feed for declining farmland birds. Concern about post-Brexit policies...

10th May 2016 (Damian Carrington) Plants:

One in five of the world’s plant species are threatened with extinction, putting food and medicines at risk, according to The State of the World’s Plants, a report produced by Kew Gardens. There are 390,000 species of plants, and more than 31,000 are used by people.

Of the latter, 57% are used to derive drugs. More than 5,500 are human foods and 1,400 have ‘social uses’ viz. Tobacco and cannabis.




Main causes: 

- destruction of habitats for farming – 31% (e.g. palm oil production and cattle ranching); deforestation for timber – 21%; deforestation for buildings and infrastructure – 13%; limate change – 4% (but this is likely to grow).


Note also that breeding crops over a long time to produce high yields means that other genes are lost, such as those that help fight pests and cope with changes in climate. Bananas, sorghum and aubergines now have very little genetic diversity and are therefore vulnerable to new threats. Finding wild relatives is the way to get genetic diversity back.

Moreover, more than 5,000 species have invaded foreign countries, causing billions of dollars of damage each year. Japanese knotweed costs UK £165m a year to control.

Further arguments:

John Burton of the World Land Trust says: ‘We’ll always have rats and cockroaches and their like for company. Which is not inappropriate.’ It is ironic that the species that will survive are those we have always despised. They will survive because they have adapted to live with humans... Meanwhile we are killing off numbers of species because we think of ourselves as superior...

Elizabeth Kolbert: The Sixth Extinction. As well as tracing how individual species have become extinct, she makes a number of interesting points.

First: what helps a species to survive is adaptability – but what helps it adapt varies according to its environment. At one time, being large and strong was valuable in fighting off predators, acquiring food etc. Now it is precisely these ‘megafauna’ that have become the most vulnerable: this is because they have not been able to combat humans, who are quicker and smarter.

Second, even if only a small number of a large species of large mammal is killed, they could die out over time when another factor is taken into account: their reproductive rate. Thus an elephant’s gestation period is 22 months, and they only have one offspring at a time (no twins!).  Thus even if only a small number of mammoths, for example, or great sloths, were killed – over several centuries the species would decline and then disappear, as it could not replace the population quickly enough.

Third, extinctions can happen gradually, as humans are not likely to notice what is happening over such a long period of time – especially if they could find alternative sources of food. In North America, while mammoth numbers dropped, the white-tailed deer (which has a relatively high reproductive rate) survived to feed the population. ‘Mammoth became a luxury food, something you could enjoy once in a while, like a large truffle’!

Being able to change what you eat is therefore an advantage when it comes to surviving the present crisis (specialising in your diet makes an animal more vulnerable).

In the current global warming scenario, those creatures that can adapt to the increasing heat – or move! – will be most likely to survive, as will those creatures that have already learned to live with humans, such as rats! And of while we are the most numerous big animal on earth... the next in line are the animals we have created through breeding to feed and serve us’ (quote from Gaia Vince reviewing the book cited next).

Expressing a different point of view to Elizabeth Kolbert, and in fact it seems to me running against the dominant view, Chris D Thomas of York University has written a book: Inheritors of the Earth: How Nature is Thriving in an Age of Extinction... he points out that while everyone has focussed on the widespread extinctions (which he does not deny are happening), we find: immigrant species (adding to the biodiversity of a location – provided they do not destroy native species), newly emerging hybrids and subspecies exhibiting freshly evolved adaptations. He says that humans have increased the number of species existing everywhere by taking them with us, and the vast majority of introduced species do no harm. Controversially, he warns us that ‘conservation’ may be misguided (e.g. the sparrow is not ‘native’ to this country but came from the Asian Steppes – it was a pest in Tudor times, but now is protected even though there are millions of them!). Re-wilding may also be the wrong approach if it is guided simply by nostalgia: everything has changed over time, so which ‘past’ do we want to return to? Or should we welcome the changes that are happening, since – as Thomas argues – there could be even greater biodiversity in future.

I would, however, agree with the reviewer I have quoted (Gaia Vince, 2nd Sep 2017) – there doesn’t seem to be much point in speculating about very distant futures: ‘Come back in a million years [says Thomas] and we might be looking at several million new species whose existence can be attributed to humans.’

Secondly, the extinctions we are faced with are happening over a very rapid time-scale, compared to ‘normal’ evolutionary change. As with climate change itself, we should be concerned about this – and about ‘tipping points’, beyond which change is not only undesirable but irreversible.

Finally, as Kolbert points out, there are reasons why some species and not others are surviving, (rats and not the great apes): and I don’t feel that Thomas has thought about this argument or the implications of it.


5. Possible solutions

(a) Individual, voluntary:

(i) Solutions concerning plants: (Alys Fowler, 30th April 2017, RHS:

Avoid using peat

Grow a diverse range of pollinator-friendly plants - Bee-friendly flowers have less petals

Save seeds

Compost kitchen and garden waste

Avoid chemicals

Make spaces for wildlife

Love your soil: don’t mess with it too much, add organic matter (preferably compost)

Create a variety of trees, shrubs, perennials, annuals, ground cover, something in flower for most of the year

Use a water butt.

(ii) Good news: people are aware and rescue hedgehogs. We can check before strimming long grass or starting a bonfire, leave patches of dead leaves, long grass or log piles. Best of all, make a CD-sized hole in your fence to let them travel through.

(a) (iii) Organised conservation

15th Feb 2017 (Zoological Society of London): a group of 14 scimitar-horned oryx (type of antelope) have been reintroduced to a nature reserve in Chad (the size of Scotland!), by the Sahara desert where they used to live. (Driven to extinction during civil unrest 1980s and 1990s). They were bred in captivity in zoos including Whipsnade.

17th Feb 2017 (Hannah Devlin, Guardian science correspondent): scientists are trying to ‘resurrect’ the woolly mammoth (by splicing mammoth DNA – preserved in the ice – into an elephant genome). Woolly mammoths could help prevent tundra permafrost from melting as they punch through snow and allow cold air to come in. A simulate ecosystem study showed that mammoths in Siberia could bring about a drop in temperature of up to 20 degrees C. In the summer they knock down trees and help the grass grow.


(b) Government, legislation:

Solutions for the UK:

Paul Wilkinson of the Wildlife Trust which helped write the 2013 State of nature report: we need a 25-year Plan for Nature [check] to stop the loss of wildlife and secure its recovery within a generation.


The government should introduce regulation to ring-fence habitats from farming, and prevent the use of the most harmful pesticides. But recent cuts to the budget for the environment have not helped.


Recommendations for less frequent cutting of road verges – drawn up by charity Plantlife, and backed by highways agencies, Natural England et al: cutting verges only twice a year (instead of three or four times) could lead to there being 400bn more flowers.

97% of wildflower meadows in Britain have been destroyed in less than a century. Verges are wildlife corridors – but there has been a 20% drop in floral diversity on road verges since 1990, partly because of too frequent cutting. Clare Warburton of Natural England says: ‘nature on the road verge does a number of jobs like cleaning the air, storing carbon, pollinating crops and providing sustainable drainage.’

Globally: ecological/sustainable tourism to preserve the biodiversity: honey, mushrooms to generate income locally e.g. Mozambique needs to be legally designated as a community conservation area.

(c) Reserves and re-wilding:

(i) Re-wilding initiatives: (Observer 13th May 2015, p 31 Tracy McVeigh): attempts are being made to return wild animals (and plants etc) to areas from which they have died out. Examples: reindeer (extinct since the 12th century, reintroduced 1952, especially in Cairngorms) black Grouse (reintroduced in Derbyshire in 2003), wild horses, wild boar have been re-establishing themselves for several decades (but these have escaped from farms?). 

(Observer 26th June 2016 Jessica Aldred): dormice being reintroduced to Yorkshire Dales National Park.

They need managed (coppiced) woodland and hedgerows – England lost 50% of its hedgerows between 1946 and 1993 from an estimated 500,000 miles to 236,000. Dormice need to be off the ground, so drystone walls and woods are essential.

This community it is hoped will link up with another released three miles away. A good species to get people involved with conservation, and what’s good for them is also good for birds, bats and butterflies.

Beavers have improved water (flood management etc) and biodiversity in Devon. Wolves could manage deer. Sea eagles were returned to the Inner Hebrides (but endangered sheep...).


The world’s largest marine park has been created in the Ross Sea off Antarctica – widely seen as Earth’s last intact marine ecosystem. (29th Oct 2016 Michael Slezak)

(George Monbiot on re-wilding the seas, 4th Feb 2017): ocean ecologists want 30% of Britain’s seas protected – we have achieved on 0.01% (off Lundy Island in the Bristol Channel, Lamlash Bay off the Isle of Arran, Flamborough Head in East Yorkshire). ‘When you establish reserves in which fish and shellfish can breed and grow to large sizes, [you get a] ‘spillover effect’ – fish migrating to the surrounding waters’ – so the policy actually helps the fishing industry.

‘Declaring areas of sea off-limits to the fishing industry would also revitalise other coastal industries [attracting] divers, whale watchers and sport fishers – all of whom tend to bring in more income and jobs than commercial fishing.’

Monbiot says that ‘a rich ecosystem includes many different species of fish, tuna, ‘blue, porbeagle, thresher, mako and occasional great white sharks’, and behind, within sight of the shore, fin whales and sperm whales...’ as described by Oliver Goldsmith in the late 18th century. He saw: ‘[fish] in distinct columns of five and six miles in length and three or four broad.’

Protection of rivers: payments in lieu of fines.

Businesses are paying ‘enforcement undertakings’ as an alternative to prosecutions – Environment Agency says the money will go to charities and projects to clean up rivers etc and for community groups to invest in public parkland. Northumbrian Water has paid £375,000 for pumping sewage into a river, and Anglian water has paid £100,000 twice for 2 pollution incidents which killed fish. 31st Jan 2017Press Association

(c) (ii) More controversial re-wilding: Lynx UK hopes to introduce six Eurasian lynxes, imported from Sweden, into Kielder Forest (a nature reserve in Northumberland). Lynx was last seen across Britain in AD700. They would reinvigorate the biggest forested area in Britain and control its herbivore population – their main food is roe deer, which is damaging the growth of wild flowers and plants, and preventing the regeneration of trees. They have been successfully re-introduced in northern Germany. Dr Ian Convery (Univ of Cumbria) says we have lost significantly more nature over the long term than the global average and we are amongst the most nature-depleted countries in the world. Three benefits: restoring ecosystems, controlling deer, attracting tourists (as happened in Germany).



As argued earlier, the point about biodiversity is that ecosystems have more components than they ‘need’ to make the system function – they have a ‘redundancy’. Dicks says:  ‘The argument in ecology is that the redundancy is needed for the long-term resilience of the system.’ So it’s possible that the whole system will collapse even if only a proportion of the existing species goes extinct.

Barnes says that this demonstrates the ‘tragedy of the commons’: ‘if I don’t grab it someone else will’. But a more important cause, surely, is that we have been encouraged to only value individual property? We have polluted the air, and the rivers and the sea because we don’t see them as ‘ours’.

Barnes ends his piece by talking about how it all comes back to population: since 1950 the world’s population has tripled; in 2016 we reached 7.4 billion. As Lynn Dicks says, world population is increasing by 75 million a year... Barnes points out that energy and water use have both increased by five times. ‘Human population growth is the principal driver of the extinction crisis. There are not separate crises going on: it’s all linked. The loss of biodiversity and bio-abundance inevitably ensues.’

Tony Juniper says: ‘solutions are linked. It’s about sustainable economies – if we continue with economic growth, we will trash ecosystems and the soil. We need to end the extinction, reduce CO2 emissions and protect soils.’


There have been five major extinctions in earth’s history (from Tori Blakeman 10th Sep 2017):

Ordovician-Silurian: 443 million years ago. Really two events, separated by hundreds of thousands of years – most life was in the sea at this stage, and 85% of it was wiped out.

Late Devonian: 359 million years ago. Scientists believe that the seas became devoid of oxygen, and shallow seas and reefs were worst affected. It took more than 100 million years for reefs to recover.

Permian-Triassic:  252 million years ago. 96% of marine species and 70% of land species were wiped out. Possible causes are massive volcanic eruptions in Siberia causing global warming.

Triassic-Jurassic: 200 million years ago. Roughly half of all species were lost, allowing dinosaurs to flourish, but plants were not affected.

Cretaceous-Tertiary: 65 million years ago. A giant asteroid caused dinosaurs and many other organisms to perish. Mammals then evolved.




3rd Aug. 2019: Turtle Dove. More than 40 million birds have disappeared from Britain in 50 years. (Patrick Barkham):

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/aug/03/silencing-natural-world-can-turtle-dove-be-saved As recently as the 60s, there were 125,000 pairs in Britain. Between 1967 and 2016, their numbers plummeted by 98%. Each year, population estimates are revised downwards: there may be fewer than 2,000 pairs left. Most worryingly, there is no agreement about how we can reverse the decline.

lowland Britain – the turtle dove’s home – is one of the most nature-depleted landscapes in the world. More than half of Britain’s plant and animal species are in decline and one in 10 is severely threatened. More than 40 million birds have vanished from this country in 50 years.

It has been affected badly by recent droughts in Africa and the Mediterranean penchant for shooting migrating birds each spring and autumn (traditionally for food, but now more for fun). It has been estimated that 3 million turtle doves are shot each year. While EU law bans the hunting of birds during periods of breeding and migration, the turtle dove is still shot in many countries during autumn. In addition, BirdLife International estimates that 600,000 are killed illegally each year.

[In Britain] Turtle doves eat mostly grains, living on wild plant and weed seeds. Since the 50s, Britain has destroyed almost all its wildflower meadows, while chemical pesticides have removed arable weeds.

[At harvest there is also hardly any spillage now] We have also removed hedgerows where they nest.

The Knepp estate has 20 calling males and is one of the few places where numbers are increasing.


Aug 2019: the oceans. Gillian Anderson, Guardian 19th Aug.  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/aug/19/crunch-point-oceans-treaty. Governments are drafting a global ocean treaty in New York...

The science is clear. Oceans are warming and becoming more acidic, which is killing coral reefs and other fragile ecosystems. Plastic pollution is choking marine life and 90% of large fish such as sharks, swordfish and tuna have been hunted from our seas. The lack of effective governance in international waters has left them open to exploitation from fisheries and extractive industries such as oil and gas. Now a new threat is emerging. Leading scientists have warned that our oceans face severe and irreversible harm from deep-sea mining, with companies queuing up to extract metals and minerals from the seabed.


Aug. 2019. Salmon Farm threatens island ecology:

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/aug/19/national-trust-objects-to-plans-for-big-salmon-farm-off-hebridean-isle National Trust Scotland objects to Mowi, world’s largest aqua-culture company, plans to install eight super-sized fish pens close to Canna. To be stocked with 2,500 tonnes of salmon. But there is a rare fan mussel, seal haul-outs, vulnerable sea birds. Even though it is an organic farm, holding less fish than a conventional one, it would still discharge as much organic waste (faces, uneaten fish meal, dead fish) as a town the size of Dumfries each year.


Aug. 2019: Brazil. Deforestation and loss of jungle is a concern, especially since the rightwing president – Jair Bolsonaro – has encouraged a surge in logging and clearing. Brazil has closed the Amazon Fund, and Norway and Germany have stopped donating to it in protest at Brazil breaking the terms of the deal. The fund has been central to attempts to limit deforestation – though it is disputed how much effect it has had.

In the year to July there has been a 278% rise in deforestation, according to Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research. There has recently been a ‘fire day’ – clearing land for crops, and the number of fires in the area has increased.


July 2019. Ecocide. Letter (Guardian) from Greenpeace board member and President of Campaign to ban trophy hunting: ecocide should be put on a par with genocide, as argued by the late Polly Higgins (environmental lawyer).

Another letter argues that occasional burning of heather (for grouse shooting!) encourages the growth of sphagnum moss – better than carpeting with trees...


July 2019. 45% of the marine ecosystems on the coast of Australia – that is, 5,000 miles - have been damaged in the last 7 years (2011 – 2017) by extreme climate events such as heat-waves, floods and drought. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). In some cases the damage is irreversible. It can take 15 years to recover from such impacts, and since these extreme events are getting more likely, some areas e.g. kelp canopies off the Western Australia coast, will not recover. Animals that feed on kelp are affected, and then the whole ecosystem.


July 19th 2019. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) has published its latest red list. A third of the species that could be assessed are under threat.

7 primates are in decline, and 2 families of ray have been pushed to the brink by overfishing. Total species on the list is now 105,732 (out of millions on earth) none of which had improved in status.

In May scientists found that wildlife populations had declined by 60% since 1970 and plant extinctions are happening at a frightening rate.

More than half the freshwater fish in Japan, and more than a third in Mexico are threatened with extinction – which would deprive billions of people of food and income.

Global heating is included as a cause of species decline in the red list.



July 18th 2019. Article by Caroline Lucas on farming:  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jul/17/pesticide-industry-health-planet-mps-ffcc-report-farmers

Quotes the RSA Food, Farming and Countryside Commission after independent two year enquiry. Farming has been about specialisation, consolidation and control over nature – many farmers are simply raw material suppliers to a processing industry.  Pesticides need to be reduced, but there is a backlash: half our agronomists (advisors on farming) are employed by agrochemical companies.

We need sustainable agroecological farming. A tax on processed meat (resisted by Dept of Health). Copenhagen has 90%  organic food in municipal institutions without increasing procurement costs.

(Letter subsequently argues against meat tax...)